Nature of Corporate Branding

Dr Ray Holland
Chris Holt
Dr Busayawan Ariyatum

Brunel Design
Brunel University UK

Professor T.C. Melewar
Head of Marketing
Brunel Business School
Brunel University, UK

Abstract

This paper examines the nature of corporate identity and branding from its’ legal origins and the rapidly increasing role of design –led branding. It is argued that brands are an essentially visual experience at every stage of the stakeholder’s engagement. The debate about the relationship of marketing and design is addressed together with the widely held cross cultural perceptions. Many design schools continue to give the wrong signals to corporations by producing a plethora of artist designers who have little knowledge of business nor inclination to become involved. Whilst the leadership is established among the marketing community, some designers are becoming increasingly aware of business strategic issues, and particularly those who have engaged with progressive design and branding strategy programmes and examples are given of such programmes in the UK and USA. Case studies of design-led branding demonstrate the power and creative potential of designers to lead major branding/rebranding programmes.

Based on Walker (1990) and a synthesis of design–led branding research, it can be seen that the education, thinking styles and other characteristics of designers and marketers are converging. Three conceptual views of the current relationship between marketing and design are offered as a basis for informing the convergence question. An opportunity exists for the disciplines of marketing and design to explore convergence and create new cross-disciplinary models to support collaborative working.

Nature of Corporate Identity

More than one hundred years ago, in one of the most famous cases in company law, a corporation became established as a separate legal entity Salomon v Salomon & Co Limited 1897: separate from its’ members, its’ directors, its’ employees and its’ creditors.
Thus it acquired the status of a “legal person” and, like every human being, needed to develop it’s personality and identity. But of course the company has no mind of its’ own but is rather an abstraction. It’s “mind” can only be regarded as the collective minds of the stakeholders and the questions and even disputes about their inherently contradictory needs and desires can be seen in the chronicles of court cases over the last century.

The balancing of the stakeholder interests falls on the Board of Directors which has much power but also great responsibility to act in the best interests of the company. As a general principle external stakeholders are entitled to assume, unless they know or have reason to suspect something to the contrary, that the directors are empowered to act on behalf of a company. Thus the principal guardianship of the corporate personality/identity rests with the Board of Directors. Fundamentally the corporate identity/brand is the personality of the company as an abstract being brought to life. The challenge remains to convince all stakeholders to engage with and trust an abstract entity.
In 1931 Procter & Gamble directors created an entire business function based on brand management (Crainer 2000). By giving responsibility to a single individual they evolved to a systematic brand management approach. Slowly brand management became an accepted functional activity and the devolution of responsibility for the corporate personality reflecting its’ identity shifted from the board of directors to the professional brand manager.
Current trends reflect an emphasis on branding the organisation since many of the world’s best known brands are companies rather than products (Baker and Hart, 2007)
Since the early 20th century brands have been brought to life in various ways, some have suffered stillbirth, some have undergone major surgery, some have soared and thrived.
Marketers have lead the way but the creation of enduring and highly successful brands can often be attributed to the special visual skills of designers who have a unique capacity to deliver the brand as a reflection of the human condition (Olins 2007)

In the first ever authoritative book on the subject of corporate identity, Henrion & Parkin (1967) wrote, “The planning and implementation of the design coordination and corporate image programme must be accepted as a top managerial responsibility. Success can only be achieved by close collaboration between management and designer.” It is clear that the broad concept of convergence was identified, even at this early stage in its history.

Origins and Evolution of Brands 

Brands began as ancient visual icons which represented the corporate identity of  ‘groups’ of people coming together or forming collectives, creating associations of one kind or another with a common set of rules, objectives and beliefs which display what might be described as ‘identity’ traits. Examples of such groups embrace ancient civilisations such as The Incas, The Aztecs, The Romans and The Egyptians. All four examples have left a very rich legacy of powerful ‘design’ themes which act as a visual identity in part or as a whole, and include the design of buildings, clothing, artefacts, jewellery and alphabets as well as decorative patterns & styles. In other words, ‘identity’ has been a natural tendency of man and his/her collective institutions, who need to identify or brand themselves in a certain ‘distinctive’ way. More recent examples might include the many colourful tribes that once made up powerful and proud nations and have since become assigned to playing more of a historic or symbolic role; such tribes include the Aborigines in Australia, the Masai from Africa, the Inuit from Alaska and the Red Indians across North America – The Comanche, Sioux, Apache and so on. The Church is another interesting example which has designed recognisable symbols and created outward signs of its intended message since the new world began. Such ‘iconic’ logos as the cross (Christian), the crescent moon & star (Muslim) and the Star of David (Jewish) are recognised by millions of people across the world. Over the centuries this basic corporate design idea has also been applied to identify nations, the monarchy, armies and governments. Brand Identity came into its own in the UK during the Victorian Era industrial revolution. There was a proliferation of brands at this time, many with names and identities that survive to this day. Such brands included Fry’s Chocolate Cream in 1866, Lifebouy Soap in1884 and Bovril in 1886 (Opie, 1999).

The quest for powerful symbols remains at the heart of the corporate identity and brand managers are seeking designers who can understand and support the company strategy and brand values of the organisation. The objective is to ensure that the brand image reflects what the organisation is about (Best, 2006).

Olins (1978) in his seminal work on “The Corporate Personality” described the brand in its’ purest form as “a figment of the marketing man’s imagination.” He likened it to a ventriloquists dummy which can be picked up and put down again whenever they [corporate marketing people] feel like it. Further he said the consumer can react to the dummy but the dummy cannot respond by itself; it is manipulated by the company. He regarded attempts to define the differences between corporate personality, corporate image and corporate identity as, for the most part, trivial.

Nevertheless branding is essentially a visual experience, not just the symbolic core but every aspect of the stakeholders’ touch points with the brand are essentially visual. Thus the entire experience has to be designed (Pine and Gilmore, 1999).It is important that the brand can be experienced through any point of contact with the company (Nagai, 2003). If there is no physical manifestation of the experience, the brand remains as abstract a concept as the “legal entity” persona acquired when the company was registered. Handy (1997) observes that corporations not only have citizens, they are citizens and they have both rights and responsibilities. He insists that companies are expected to behave decently. What is “decent” is the delicate balance for brand leaders. Too decent may be equated to sluggish and boring, whilst too indecent may attract attention and media interest but disturb sensibilities. Perhaps the best known example of this is the Benetton campaign which clearly set out to generate controversy and divide opinion. Even good human beings are not expected to be flawless in their character so perhaps the concept of a flawless corporation is unrealistic and the quest to design the perfect brand experience is undesirable.

Marketers Brand Territory

Despite all the evidence of visual roots of branding, marketers claimed the territory of branding. As recently as 1999, one of the major writers on marketing, read widely in business schools globally, dismissed design as a PR tool for logos, stationery, brochures, signs business forms, business cards, buildings, uniforms and company cars (Kotler, et al, 1999).This is particularly surprising since Kotler & Rath 1984 published a paper of great influence on the origins of design management thinking in which they made  a well argued case for design as a powerful but neglected strategic resource.
A review of a large selection of major marketing texts for business and MBA education reveals a dearth of material about the role of design even at its’ most basic level. Marketing texts which offer an integrated evaluation of design and marketing are, by contrast, rare.

An example is taken from The 22 Immutable Laws of Branding by Al & Laura Ries, both distinguished marketers (Profile Books, 1999) – Law16: The Law of Shape, and Law 17: The Law of Colour (sic). The only time the ‘design’ word is mentioned in these two chapters is ‘A great deal of effort has gone into creating elaborate symbols for use in logotypes. These have poured out of  America’s design shops in great profusion and, for the most part, these are wasted’. The author’s go on to say that most have little to do with creating meaning in the consumers’ minds.

A summary of some key marketing books in both categories may be found in Appendix A.

Bruce and Cooper (1997) showed how design interfaces with different parts of the organisation and how the engagement builds to become an integral role in the delivery of the brand experience- see figure 1

Figure1: The organisation’s need for design (Bruce and Cooper, 1997)

In industry the number of marketing-led firms still far outweighs those who embrace design despite all of the evidence that design –led firms out perform others (Rich, 2004). Although the idea that general managers should learn from design managers was identified in 1998 (Lester, Piore & Malek 1998), the full potential of design has not been explored.

However there are good examples of marketing and design cooperation. The designs and marketing campaigns of the Classic Mac computer demonstrates integrated contributions of design, marketing and other stakeholders that lead to great success.

Firstly, the name, Apple, helps by differentiating the brand from other companies, e.g. IBM, UNIX and Sun Microsystems. Apart from its user-friendly sound, the visual identity represents several philosophies. The first logo was a drawing of Sir Isaac Newton sitting under an apple tree with a William Wordsworth’s poem running around the border – “Newton… A mind forever voyaging through strange seas of thoughts alone…” Although this logo has been replaced, the underlying philosophy, “Think Different”, has been used as a slogan since 1997.
This kind of “joined-up” thinking was shown to achieve vivid corporate identity, vibrant corporate brand and added-value product brand.

The second logo was best described by Jean-Louis Gassée, the President of Apple Products (cited in Linzmayer 1999) as: “One of the deep mysteries to me is our logo, the symbol of lust and knowledge, bitten into, all crossed with the colours of the rainbow in the wrong order. You couldn’t dream of a more appropriate logo: lust, knowledge, hope and anarchy.” The lust refers to the metaphor created by the story of Adam & Eve in The Garden of Eden where Eve was tempted to take a bite from the forbidden fruit – the apple. Insightful visual design thinking was demonstrated through all its details. For instance, a bite (or byte) on the right hand side, which prevents the apple from looking like a cherry tomato. Further, the six colours represent the colour capabilities, which were considered novel at the time. Even though the logo has been updated recently using a metallic treatment to reflect the cutting edge of digital technology, the main essence of the design is maintained (see figure 2).

The success of the Classic Mac computer came from its superior design. This design formula, combining a monitor and computer in a single unit, has proved to be successful even in the present market, as the design of the iMac was based on the original Macintosh. The marketing campaign for the Classic Mac was also considered evolutionary – an athletic heroine portrayed the coming of the Macintosh as a means of saving humanity from “conformity.”- see figures 3 & 4.

 

Figure 2: Evolution of Apple Computer Logo Design

 

Figure 3: The designs of Classic Mac and 1984 Marketing campaign

Figure 4: The new designs which represent Apple design philosophy
(For example, colours of iMac reflect the colours of the previous logo)

However such fine examples remain a minority and the communication and cultural gap between the two professions remains. Marketers, management trained in business school paradigm are generally better prepared to use their left brain (Pink, 2005). Designers from a design school paradigm largely use their right brains. Few are using their entire brain. Over the past 15 years at Brunel University where the authors are engaged, the Masters Design Strategy programme encourages students to do just that, embracing design thinking, design knowledge and design skills with an understanding of business, commerce, financial reality and stakeholder needs. Marketing is integral to the lecture programme and ways of combining design and marketing expertise are explained and encouraged (See also Design and Branding Research at Brunel University).

Two Tribes at War

Walker 1990 presented an analysis of designer and business manager attributes under selected headings which begged the question whether there was any prospect that the two cultures could effectively communicate and cooperate. A summary of his findings is shown in table 1 below:

Table 1: Summary of Walker [1990] “Two tribes at War”

Source: Walker (1990)

As recently as 2003 Von Stamm writes of the continuing gap between marketers and designers when she writes “the lack of understanding of the differences leads many managers to view design and creativity as something close to black art, something which cannot be managed and is therefore better left alone”.
Marketers do not trust designers with the brand. Aldersley-Williams (2000) quoted in Balmer and Gray (2003) remarked that “designers talk strategy but like pretty shapes and colours.” He failed to acknowledge that there is a growing body of design management educators, researchers and strategists who are contributing valuable new thinking about using design as a strategic resource.
Yet six years previously Aldersley-Williams [1994] argued that it is imperative for designers, marketing and other managers to work together when creating corporate identity schemes. But Powell [2007] shows the problems remain current in identifying concerns by business owners and managers about “creative mavericks”.
James Dyson, famous for his revolutionary design of vacuum cleaners and other innovative products was scathing about marketers, when he wrote “The modern marketing man has neither the time nor the inclination to learn about the creation and manufacture of things he is meant to be making more attractive to the consumer. He simply applies his all purpose skills to selling more of what already exists and the world gradually bores itself to death “

One of the authors of this paper (Holt) during an 11 year period as Head of Design Management with British Airways, reports his experience of both frustration and cooperation working alongside marketing professionals. On the whole, it was felt that design was understood by most and teamwork and cooperation prevailed, each party bringing value to the task in hand, resulting in a better product output and a corporate identity that was supported and underpinned by all concerned. Two Case Studies were commissioned by British Airways [BA] recording the chronology and processes undertaken by BA’s own Design Management team during the creation of a worldwide integrated design-led communications campaign in 1996 and the reconfiguration of the company’s corporate identity in 1997. Alan Topalian 1999 published the identity case study in which he observes “It was decided that such a project should be sanctioned and Design Management were asked to prepare the business case. Considerable time and effort was put into the preparation of this business case by Design Management in conjunction with Marketing, Finance and other departments within the group.  The identity gained Board approval in August 1996”’
Regarding the global communications campaign Topalian [1996] observed “Marketing condensed information generated into digestible form; Design Management helped to analyse feedback and advised how it could be translated into effective communications, and Market Research prepared presentations for the Directors”’ Further evidence of the convergence between the design and marketing professionals in a major international corporation.
However, it has been Holt’s experience that the general level of cooperation at BA is the exception rather than the rule and there is often more tension than harmony between the two disciplines.

Whilst many design schools (including some who should know better) are still promulgating the idea that corporate identity is some imaginative logo, there are emergent strategic approaches to design –led branding and an increasing number of leading corporations learning to use design strategically for both internal and external branding.

More than half a century ago Brech (1954) in his seminal management book “The Principles and Practice of Management” observed that “if the product is “bad” to the extent that it is not in keeping with what the customer wants or needs, then unless this is realised promptly, the lack of communication between present day marketing and the ultimate consumer can be fatal”. He was remarkably prophetic about the importance of satisfying the consumer. The core of any good brand is the perceived quality of the company products and services and they are integral to the complex web which constitutes corporate identity.

Young designers frequently ask the question that “if the product and service are good, why do we need marketers?” The principal reason for the question may be lack of real understanding of each other’s role. Designers report that they feel undervalued but they have to earn the respect by embracing a deep understanding of business.

Sir George Cox in his recent report the UK Government called for all UK design schools to incorporate a basic understanding of business into the design curriculum. He also went further by recommending much more emphasis on multi-disciplinary education for creative enterprise (Cox, 2005).

Currently the number of marketers far exceeds designers in their leadership of brands but marketers may be encouraged to consider that they are indebted to designers for the creative form and substance of all they represent. By integrating the design and branding strategy all professionals can achieve a consistent brand experience for all stakeholders.

Designers as Their Own Worst Enemies 

The majority of design schools throughout the world still educate designers with limited knowledge of business. Worse still they allow young designers to believe they are artists and that they have the ownership of creativity as their birthright.

All advanced industrialised nations educate more designers than industry needs so that a high proportion of these young designers find it difficult or impossible to find work in their chosen field. This continues to frustrate designers who cannot understand why their best ideas get blocked (Reiple, 2004).

Young graduate designers who have no credibility in understanding business perpetuate the message that designers must be kept at a distance, used sparingly and only invited to help when it is recognised that artistic input is essential. The entire field of managing creative designers and creative design teams, especially multi-disciplinary teams, holds so much promise for design and marketing research. This problem is often perpetuated in consultancies and agencies where creatives (designers) are kept away from the clients and where communication with the clients is confined to the company seniors, marketing strategists, or ‘suits’ (client liaison teams).
If designers are to be taken seriously they have to embrace marketing thinking from the outset.

In companies rather then consultancies the picture is often better. The emergent Design Management team not only create a bridge with the Marketing Department (and others) but also act as catalysts for all the manifestations of the corporate identity as realised through a rich and varied mix of design disciplines. They identify, brief and pull-together teams of design specialists, adding value in the process. Such specialists might include interior designers, graphic designers, signage specialists, website designers, designers of work-wear and uniforms and others. Whilst marketing are often involved with many or all of these outputs they do not have the training, knowledge or understanding of design to achieve optimum results.

Such understanding of business for designing corporate identity can be acquired through research, from reading strategic documents and business plans to interviewing key stakeholders (Wheeler, 2003)

Emergence of Design Strategists 

Yet many progressive design schools are embracing business and, in particular marketing very successfully. They are principally rooted in design management as a subject discipline but since design management remains ill defined and rarely focuses on the strategic level of business, they usually have titles which do not include the word “management” They reflect a growing view that “together design and innovation are in effect the drivers of any successful business” (Cooper and Press, 2003)

Examples of such design –led courses in the UK are:

•    BA Design Management and Innovation, De Montfort University, Leicester
•    MA / PG Dip Design Entrepreneurship, De Montfort University, Leicester

•    BA Design Management for the Creative Industries, University of Salford
•    MSc / PG Dip Design Management, University of Salford

•    BA Design in Business, Birmingham City University
•    PG Cert / PG Dip / MA Design Management, Birmingham City University

•    MA Design Management, Northumbria University

•    BA (Hons) Design and Technology Management, University of Leeds

•    MA Design: Management and Policy, Lancaster University

•    MA/PG Dip Design Management, London College of Communication

•    MA Creative Enterprise, University College for the Creative Arts
•    MBA Creative Industries Management, University College for the Creative Arts
•    MA Design and Strategy, University College for the Creative Arts
•    MA Innovation & Brand Management, University College for the Creative Arts

In the USA there are excellent strategic design –led courses, and in their report “Lessons from America” the UK Design Council particularly singled out the following courses for their use of design as a problem solving tool in a multi-disciplinary environment:

•    Integrated Product Development Course, Carnegie Mellon University (Vogel, Cagan and Mather, 1997)
•    Dual degree programme (Master of Design: MD and Master of Business Administration: MBA), Illinois Institute of Technology (Alexis and Zia Hassan, 2007)
•    Collaboration between the Massachusetts Institute of Technology: MIT and Rhode Island School of Design: RISD (Eppinger and Kressy, 2002)
•    Stanford University D-School – a collaborative environment for graduates of all disciplines to use design thinking as a problem solving tool.

Design–Led Branding 

So having established there is significant growth in design and branding strategies in education, industry and consultancy, what is different about a strategy developed by designers? The following vignette illustrates the unique value of design into the corporate brand.

Case of BMW Motors:

The brand identity of BMW or Baverische Motoren Werke AG (Bavarian Motor Works) roots are in its origin. The roundel logo, which has not been changed throughout the company’s history, was derived from its predecessor company, Rapp Motorenwerke. The colour and check pattern represents the Arms of Bavaria (see figure 3). Evidently, the design has been used to communicate BMW’s distinctive identity and values (e.g. superior engine technologies) through all touch points. The cross in the centre of the badge is said to represent an aircraft propeller, derived from the early days when the company designed and built aero-engines. One of the best examples of design thinking is the company’s headquarters building in Germany, which represents the inline-4 cylinder engine of a car.

It was the sporty sedan, BMW 700 that defined its identity and personality (see figure 6). Up till now, BMW designs have been followed these character traits (GPI Group, 2007). The focus on
design was emphasised through the so-called “e-code” – a short name for Entwicklng (Evolution and Development in English) which is the main driver behind the E series. Moreover, the attention to design detail is the key differentiator of BMW products.

Figure 5: From left to right: Arms of Bavaria, Spinning Propeller, BMW Roundel and Corporate Headquarters building

Figure 6: The designs of BMW 700 and other consumer touch points

Design and Branding Research at Brunel University

Brunel University have been conducting courses and research in the field of design, innovation and branding strategy since 1993.Consequently there is a growing research output generating new thinking about both the methodologies and models of building design and branding strategies in a wide range of fields. Examples of completed and current research may be found in Appendix B. It may be observed that many of the studies are topical and contemporary and equally likely to be found in a marketing environment in a business school.

A contextual evaluation of this research, using a grounded theory approach, reveals that there is a convergence of design and marketing thinking reflecting a growing understanding of cultural factors and driven by economic imperatives such as increased competition, growing virtual worlds and greater consumer demands. It thus offers the promise of “two tribes at peace” and the convergence may be expressed as shown in table 2 below:

Table 2: Adaptation of Walker “Two tribes at War” 1990

 

Note: Adapted from Walker 1990 and convergence added

 

Opportunity for New Paradigm Based on Convergence of Design/Marketing Thinking 

The convergence of cultures represents an opportunity for marketing and design to build collaborative models for the development of products, services and brands.

Selecting from the above table the education of marketers emphasising words and designers emphasising visuals, the real vision for powerfully communicated corporate brands lies in the integration and potential creative synergy. Both marketers and designers are converging in their agreement on the value of systems and holistic thinking, and investing much intellectual effort into defining problems and generating creative alternatives.
Strategic designers are no longer strange lonely artists detached from the world around them, but “people people” confident in their roles in multi-disciplinary teams. An example of research demonstrating such benefits may be found in Ivins and Holland (1999).

Three views of the current relations between marketing and design are offered below:

Figure 7: Evolution of Design and Marketing Relationship

Possibility of integration

The convergence is demonstrated to be a natural phenomenon [ Figure 7 [3] ] but there are important questions about how to proceed. Fundamental questions about such issues as cultures and semantics need attention. And in building the models questions about added value to corporate brands, storytelling, narrative and leadership issues arise.

The complex challenges of designing a corporate identity and building a corporate brand through designing a great customer experience needs high quality thinking of all kinds.

Conclusions

The paper makes a case for integration for successful development of corporate identity and brands and identifies a number of challenging issues to achieve a greater understanding and ultimate convergence of the marketing and design disciplines. Clearly it is important to begin with a thorough investigation of practices and educational provision. This is essential in relation to education since only a relatively small number of progressive design schools are ready to engage
in developing a new paradigm.
An agenda of issues to be addressed to further explore the potential benefits of cooperation needs to be drawn up and the authors offer the following framework for future study.

1.    A comparative study of the practices and benefits of marketing-led and design-led corporate identity and corporate branding.
2.    Investigation into the characteristics and cultures of design and marketing environments
3.    Evaluation of the processes and models used by marketing and design for strategic branding.
4.    A study of the semantics of the two disciplines, focussing on key terminology used by both disciplines.
5.    Evaluation of cross-disciplinary teamwork and development of new models to support creative teams.
6.    Development of more multi-disciplinary courses – particularly at postgraduate level- which integrate design and marketing [and other functional areas] thinking.

 

References

Aldersley-Williams, H (1994) “Corporate Identity” – Lund Humphries

Alexis, J. and Zia Hassan, M. (2007) ‘Launching the Dual Degree: Creating Business-Savvy Designers.’ Design Management Review, 18(3), 49 – 54.

Baker, M. and Hart, S. (2007) Product Strategy and Management. FT Prentice Hall

Balmer J & Gray E [2003] “Corporate Brands: what are they? What of them?” European Journal of Marketing Vol.37No. 7/8.

Best, K (2006) “Design Management. Managing Design Strategy, Process and Implementation – AVA Academia

Brech, E. et all (1953) Principles and Practice of Management. Longman

Press, M. and Cooper, R. (2003) The design experience: The role of design and designers in the twenty-first century. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing.

Cox, G. (2005) Cox Review of Creativity in Business. HK Treasury [Online], www.hm-treasury.gov.uk/independent_reviews/cox_review/coxreview_index.cfm

Crainer S [2000] “The Management Century” – Booz Allen & Hamilton

Design Council UK [2006] Lessons from America, Report of the Design Council/ HEFCE   fact-finding visit to the United States,
http://www.designcouncil.org.uk/en/Design-Council/Files/System-Files/Download/
Dyson J [1997] “Against the Odds” Orion Business Books

Eppinger, S.D. and Kressy, M.S. (2002) ‘Interdisciplinary product development education at MIT and RISD.’ Design Management Review, 13(3), 58 – 61.

GPI Group, (2007) ‘BMW: The Fifth Dimension.’ Grand Prix Supplement Magazine.

Henrion, FHK & Parkin, A  (1967) “Design coordination and corporate image” – Reinhold Publishing

Ivins J & Holland R [1999] Reflections on the operation of large multi-disciplinary projects in engineering,
design and design management published in IEEE Journal– Vol 42 no 4 ISSN 0018 -9359

Kotler P et al [1999] “Principles of Marketing” – Prentice Hall Europe

Kotler P & Rath A [1984] “Design: a powerful but neglected strategic tool” Journal of Business Strategy, Faulkner and Gray Publishers.

Lester, R.K., Piore, M.J. and Malek, K.M. (1998) ‘Interpretative Management: What General Managers Can Learn from Design.’ Harvard Business Review, March-April, 86 – 96.

Linzmayer, O.W. (1999) Apple Confidential: The Real Story of Apple Computer, Inc. San Francisco: No Starch Press.

Nagai K  [2003] “Brand Strategy and Design” – Pie Books Tokyo

Olins W [1978] “The Corporate Personality : an enquiry into the nature of corporate identity”
Design Council, London

Olins W.[2007]  Speech to Design Futures Seminar – Brunel University

Opie, R (2005) “Remember When” – Bounty Books

Pine (II), B.J. and Gilmore, J.H. (1999) The Experience Economy. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.

Pink, D.H. (2005) A Whole New Mind: Moving from the Information Age to the Conceptual Age. New York: Penguin Group.
Powell  S [2007] Organisational Marketing, identity and the creative brand” Journal of Brand MANAGEMENT Vol.15 No.1

Ries, A & L (2003) “The 22 Immutable Laws of Branding” – Profile Books

Reiple A [2004] “Understanding why your new design ideas get blocked” Design Management Review, Design Management Institute Boston USA Vol 15

Rich, H. (2004) ‘Proving the Practical power of Design.’ Design Management Review, 15 (4) 29 – 34

Topalian,  A & BA plc [1996] “The People Concept – taking the Masterbrand of British Airways below-the- line” –
Alto Design Management

Topalian A & BA plc [1999] “Rebranding British Airways for the 21st  century” – Alto Design Management

Vogel, C.M., Cagan, J. and Mather, J. (1997) ‘Teaching Integrated Product Development: Education Innovation at Carnegie Mellon University.’  Design Management Journal, Fall, 58 – 65.

Von Stamm, B (2003) “Managing Innovation, Design & Creativity” – Wiley

Walker D [1990] “Two tribes at war?”, in Oakley M [ed.] Design Management: A Handbook of Issues and Methods, Oxford: Blackwell

Wheeler A [2003] “Designing Brand Identity” – Wiley

Appendix A

Books frequently used for marketing education which have little or no reference to strategic design

Books included on business schools reading list which explain strategic design

Appendix B

Some examples of strategic design –led branding research at Brunel University

Masters by design research:

•    Designing a culture for innovation [internal branding].
•    Corporate branding alliances.
•    Creativity and company success.
•    Managing brand loyalty in the luxury goods industry
•    Corporate social responsibility and brands
•    A systematic and conceptual framework for brand risk analysis.
•    Mass- customisation and branding for the fashion industry.
•    Futures forecasting tools for design and branding.
•    Design and branding strategy for the toy industry.
•    City [and tourism] design and branding.
•    Brand verbal identity : the impact of taglines on consumers.
•    Total sensory branding – including design of spiritual customer experiences.
•    New design and branding models for many industries eg furniture, fashion accessories, cars, music, hotels, IT and electronic products
•    Spiritual Branding Strategy

PhD completed studies which have implications for strategic marketing

•    Cross Functional Collaboration for Development of Electronic Products
•    Futures Forecasting for new Product Concepts
•    Mass Customisation for Fashion
•    Design Development of Smart Clothing
•    International Design Protection of Intellectual Property Rights

PhD studies in continuation

•    City Branding through Mega Sporting Events
•    Relationship of Design and Brand Attributes for Luxury Cars
•    Branding Development for Teenage Fashion
Dr Ray Holland
Chris Holt
Dr Busayawan Ariyatum

Brunel Design
Brunel University UK

Professor T.C. Melewar
Head of Marketing
Brunel Business School
Brunel University, UK

 

International Conference of The Academy of Marketing Science, Vancouver, Canada – May 2008

 

Abstract

This paper examines the nature of corporate identity and branding from its’ legal origins and the rapidly increasing role of design –led branding. It is argued that brands are an essentially visual experience at every stage of the stakeholder’s engagement. The debate about the relationship of marketing and design is addressed together with the widely held cross cultural perceptions. Many design schools continue to give the wrong signals to corporations by producing a plethora of artist designers who have little knowledge of business nor inclination to become involved. Whilst the leadership is established among the marketing community, some designers are becoming increasingly aware of business strategic issues, and particularly those who have engaged with progressive design and branding strategy programmes and examples are given of such programmes in the UK and USA. Case studies of design-led branding demonstrate the power and creative potential of designers to lead major branding/rebranding programmes.

Based on Walker (1990) and a synthesis of design–led branding research, it can be seen that the education, thinking styles and other characteristics of designers and marketers are converging. Three conceptual views of the current relationship between marketing and design are offered as a basis for informing the convergence question. An opportunity exists for the disciplines of marketing and design to explore convergence and create new cross-disciplinary models to support collaborative working.

Nature of Corporate Identity

More than one hundred years ago, in one of the most famous cases in company law, a corporation became established as a separate legal entity Salomon v Salomon & Co Limited 1897: separate from its’ members, its’ directors, its’ employees and its’ creditors.
Thus it acquired the status of a “legal person” and, like every human being, needed to develop it’s personality and identity. But of course the company has no mind of its’ own but is rather an abstraction. It’s “mind” can only be regarded as the collective minds of the stakeholders and the questions and even disputes about their inherently contradictory needs and desires can be seen in the chronicles of court cases over the last century.

The balancing of the stakeholder interests falls on the Board of Directors which has much power but also great responsibility to act in the best interests of the company. As a general principle external stakeholders are entitled to assume, unless they know or have reason to suspect something to the contrary, that the directors are empowered to act on behalf of a company. Thus the principal guardianship of the corporate personality/identity rests with the Board of Directors. Fundamentally the corporate identity/brand is the personality of the company as an abstract being brought to life. The challenge remains to convince all stakeholders to engage with and trust an abstract entity.
In 1931 Procter & Gamble directors created an entire business function based on brand management (Crainer 2000). By giving responsibility to a single individual they evolved to a systematic brand management approach. Slowly brand management became an accepted functional activity and the devolution of responsibility for the corporate personality reflecting its’ identity shifted from the board of directors to the professional brand manager.
Current trends reflect an emphasis on branding the organisation since many of the world’s best known brands are companies rather than products (Baker and Hart, 2007)
Since the early 20th century brands have been brought to life in various ways, some have suffered stillbirth, some have undergone major surgery, some have soared and thrived.
Marketers have lead the way but the creation of enduring and highly successful brands can often be attributed to the special visual skills of designers who have a unique capacity to deliver the brand as a reflection of the human condition (Olins 2007)

In the first ever authoritative book on the subject of corporate identity, Henrion & Parkin (1967) wrote, “The planning and implementation of the design coordination and corporate image programme must be accepted as a top managerial responsibility. Success can only be achieved by close collaboration between management and designer.” It is clear that the broad concept of convergence was identified, even at this early stage in its history.

Origins and Evolution of Brands 

Brands began as ancient visual icons which represented the corporate identity of  ‘groups’ of people coming together or forming collectives, creating associations of one kind or another with a common set of rules, objectives and beliefs which display what might be described as ‘identity’ traits. Examples of such groups embrace ancient civilisations such as The Incas, The Aztecs, The Romans and The Egyptians. All four examples have left a very rich legacy of powerful ‘design’ themes which act as a visual identity in part or as a whole, and include the design of buildings, clothing, artefacts, jewellery and alphabets as well as decorative patterns & styles. In other words, ‘identity’ has been a natural tendency of man and his/her collective institutions, who need to identify or brand themselves in a certain ‘distinctive’ way. More recent examples might include the many colourful tribes that once made up powerful and proud nations and have since become assigned to playing more of a historic or symbolic role; such tribes include the Aborigines in Australia, the Masai from Africa, the Inuit from Alaska and the Red Indians across North America – The Comanche, Sioux, Apache and so on. The Church is another interesting example which has designed recognisable symbols and created outward signs of its intended message since the new world began. Such ‘iconic’ logos as the cross (Christian), the crescent moon & star (Muslim) and the Star of David (Jewish) are recognised by millions of people across the world. Over the centuries this basic corporate design idea has also been applied to identify nations, the monarchy, armies and governments. Brand Identity came into its own in the UK during the Victorian Era industrial revolution. There was a proliferation of brands at this time, many with names and identities that survive to this day. Such brands included Fry’s Chocolate Cream in 1866, Lifebouy Soap in1884 and Bovril in 1886 (Opie, 1999).

The quest for powerful symbols remains at the heart of the corporate identity and brand managers are seeking designers who can understand and support the company strategy and brand values of the organisation. The objective is to ensure that the brand image reflects what the organisation is about (Best, 2006).

Olins (1978) in his seminal work on “The Corporate Personality” described the brand in its’ purest form as “a figment of the marketing man’s imagination.” He likened it to a ventriloquists dummy which can be picked up and put down again whenever they [corporate marketing people] feel like it. Further he said the consumer can react to the dummy but the dummy cannot respond by itself; it is manipulated by the company. He regarded attempts to define the differences between corporate personality, corporate image and corporate identity as, for the most part, trivial.

Nevertheless branding is essentially a visual experience, not just the symbolic core but every aspect of the stakeholders’ touch points with the brand are essentially visual. Thus the entire experience has to be designed (Pine and Gilmore, 1999).It is important that the brand can be experienced through any point of contact with the company (Nagai, 2003). If there is no physical manifestation of the experience, the brand remains as abstract a concept as the “legal entity” persona acquired when the company was registered. Handy (1997) observes that corporations not only have citizens, they are citizens and they have both rights and responsibilities. He insists that companies are expected to behave decently. What is “decent” is the delicate balance for brand leaders. Too decent may be equated to sluggish and boring, whilst too indecent may attract attention and media interest but disturb sensibilities. Perhaps the best known example of this is the Benetton campaign which clearly set out to generate controversy and divide opinion. Even good human beings are not expected to be flawless in their character so perhaps the concept of a flawless corporation is unrealistic and the quest to design the perfect brand experience is undesirable.

Marketers Brand Territory

Despite all the evidence of visual roots of branding, marketers claimed the territory of branding. As recently as 1999, one of the major writers on marketing, read widely in business schools globally, dismissed design as a PR tool for logos, stationery, brochures, signs business forms, business cards, buildings, uniforms and company cars (Kotler, et al, 1999).This is particularly surprising since Kotler & Rath 1984 published a paper of great influence on the origins of design management thinking in which they made  a well argued case for design as a powerful but neglected strategic resource.
A review of a large selection of major marketing texts for business and MBA education reveals a dearth of material about the role of design even at its’ most basic level. Marketing texts which offer an integrated evaluation of design and marketing are, by contrast, rare.

An example is taken from The 22 Immutable Laws of Branding by Al & Laura Ries, both distinguished marketers (Profile Books, 1999) – Law16: The Law of Shape, and Law 17: The Law of Colour (sic). The only time the ‘design’ word is mentioned in these two chapters is ‘A great deal of effort has gone into creating elaborate symbols for use in logotypes. These have poured out of  America’s design shops in great profusion and, for the most part, these are wasted’. The author’s go on to say that most have little to do with creating meaning in the consumers’ minds.

A summary of some key marketing books in both categories may be found in Appendix A.

Bruce and Cooper (1997) showed how design interfaces with different parts of the organisation and how the engagement builds to become an integral role in the delivery of the brand experience- see figure 1

Figure1: The organisation’s need for design (Bruce and Cooper, 1997)

In industry the number of marketing-led firms still far outweighs those who embrace design despite all of the evidence that design –led firms out perform others (Rich, 2004). Although the idea that general managers should learn from design managers was identified in 1998 (Lester, Piore & Malek 1998), the full potential of design has not been explored.

However there are good examples of marketing and design cooperation. The designs and marketing campaigns of the Classic Mac computer demonstrates integrated contributions of design, marketing and other stakeholders that lead to great success.

Firstly, the name, Apple, helps by differentiating the brand from other companies, e.g. IBM, UNIX and Sun Microsystems. Apart from its user-friendly sound, the visual identity represents several philosophies. The first logo was a drawing of Sir Isaac Newton sitting under an apple tree with a William Wordsworth’s poem running around the border – “Newton… A mind forever voyaging through strange seas of thoughts alone…” Although this logo has been replaced, the underlying philosophy, “Think Different”, has been used as a slogan since 1997.
This kind of “joined-up” thinking was shown to achieve vivid corporate identity, vibrant corporate brand and added-value product brand.

The second logo was best described by Jean-Louis Gassée, the President of Apple Products (cited in Linzmayer 1999) as: “One of the deep mysteries to me is our logo, the symbol of lust and knowledge, bitten into, all crossed with the colours of the rainbow in the wrong order. You couldn’t dream of a more appropriate logo: lust, knowledge, hope and anarchy.” The lust refers to the metaphor created by the story of Adam & Eve in The Garden of Eden where Eve was tempted to take a bite from the forbidden fruit – the apple. Insightful visual design thinking was demonstrated through all its details. For instance, a bite (or byte) on the right hand side, which prevents the apple from looking like a cherry tomato. Further, the six colours represent the colour capabilities, which were considered novel at the time. Even though the logo has been updated recently using a metallic treatment to reflect the cutting edge of digital technology, the main essence of the design is maintained (see figure 2).

The success of the Classic Mac computer came from its superior design. This design formula, combining a monitor and computer in a single unit, has proved to be successful even in the present market, as the design of the iMac was based on the original Macintosh. The marketing campaign for the Classic Mac was also considered evolutionary – an athletic heroine portrayed the coming of the Macintosh as a means of saving humanity from “conformity.”- see figures 3 & 4.

 

Figure 2: Evolution of Apple Computer Logo Design

 

Figure 3: The designs of Classic Mac and 1984 Marketing campaign

Figure 4: The new designs which represent Apple design philosophy
(For example, colours of iMac reflect the colours of the previous logo)

However such fine examples remain a minority and the communication and cultural gap between the two professions remains. Marketers, management trained in business school paradigm are generally better prepared to use their left brain (Pink, 2005). Designers from a design school paradigm largely use their right brains. Few are using their entire brain. Over the past 15 years at Brunel University where the authors are engaged, the Masters Design Strategy programme encourages students to do just that, embracing design thinking, design knowledge and design skills with an understanding of business, commerce, financial reality and stakeholder needs. Marketing is integral to the lecture programme and ways of combining design and marketing expertise are explained and encouraged (See also Design and Branding Research at Brunel University).

Two Tribes at War

Walker 1990 presented an analysis of designer and business manager attributes under selected headings which begged the question whether there was any prospect that the two cultures could effectively communicate and cooperate. A summary of his findings is shown in table 1 below:

Table 1: Summary of Walker [1990] “Two tribes at War”

Source: Walker (1990)

As recently as 2003 Von Stamm writes of the continuing gap between marketers and designers when she writes “the lack of understanding of the differences leads many managers to view design and creativity as something close to black art, something which cannot be managed and is therefore better left alone”.
Marketers do not trust designers with the brand. Aldersley-Williams (2000) quoted in Balmer and Gray (2003) remarked that “designers talk strategy but like pretty shapes and colours.” He failed to acknowledge that there is a growing body of design management educators, researchers and strategists who are contributing valuable new thinking about using design as a strategic resource.
Yet six years previously Aldersley-Williams [1994] argued that it is imperative for designers, marketing and other managers to work together when creating corporate identity schemes. But Powell [2007] shows the problems remain current in identifying concerns by business owners and managers about “creative mavericks”.
James Dyson, famous for his revolutionary design of vacuum cleaners and other innovative products was scathing about marketers, when he wrote “The modern marketing man has neither the time nor the inclination to learn about the creation and manufacture of things he is meant to be making more attractive to the consumer. He simply applies his all purpose skills to selling more of what already exists and the world gradually bores itself to death “

One of the authors of this paper (Holt) during an 11 year period as Head of Design Management with British Airways, reports his experience of both frustration and cooperation working alongside marketing professionals. On the whole, it was felt that design was understood by most and teamwork and cooperation prevailed, each party bringing value to the task in hand, resulting in a better product output and a corporate identity that was supported and underpinned by all concerned. Two Case Studies were commissioned by British Airways [BA] recording the chronology and processes undertaken by BA’s own Design Management team during the creation of a worldwide integrated design-led communications campaign in 1996 and the reconfiguration of the company’s corporate identity in 1997. Alan Topalian 1999 published the identity case study in which he observes “It was decided that such a project should be sanctioned and Design Management were asked to prepare the business case. Considerable time and effort was put into the preparation of this business case by Design Management in conjunction with Marketing, Finance and other departments within the group.  The identity gained Board approval in August 1996”’
Regarding the global communications campaign Topalian [1996] observed “Marketing condensed information generated into digestible form; Design Management helped to analyse feedback and advised how it could be translated into effective communications, and Market Research prepared presentations for the Directors”’ Further evidence of the convergence between the design and marketing professionals in a major international corporation.
However, it has been Holt’s experience that the general level of cooperation at BA is the exception rather than the rule and there is often more tension than harmony between the two disciplines.

Whilst many design schools (including some who should know better) are still promulgating the idea that corporate identity is some imaginative logo, there are emergent strategic approaches to design –led branding and an increasing number of leading corporations learning to use design strategically for both internal and external branding.

More than half a century ago Brech (1954) in his seminal management book “The Principles and Practice of Management” observed that “if the product is “bad” to the extent that it is not in keeping with what the customer wants or needs, then unless this is realised promptly, the lack of communication between present day marketing and the ultimate consumer can be fatal”. He was remarkably prophetic about the importance of satisfying the consumer. The core of any good brand is the perceived quality of the company products and services and they are integral to the complex web which constitutes corporate identity.

Young designers frequently ask the question that “if the product and service are good, why do we need marketers?” The principal reason for the question may be lack of real understanding of each other’s role. Designers report that they feel undervalued but they have to earn the respect by embracing a deep understanding of business.

Sir George Cox in his recent report the UK Government called for all UK design schools to incorporate a basic understanding of business into the design curriculum. He also went further by recommending much more emphasis on multi-disciplinary education for creative enterprise (Cox, 2005).

Currently the number of marketers far exceeds designers in their leadership of brands but marketers may be encouraged to consider that they are indebted to designers for the creative form and substance of all they represent. By integrating the design and branding strategy all professionals can achieve a consistent brand experience for all stakeholders.

Designers as Their Own Worst Enemies 

The majority of design schools throughout the world still educate designers with limited knowledge of business. Worse still they allow young designers to believe they are artists and that they have the ownership of creativity as their birthright.

All advanced industrialised nations educate more designers than industry needs so that a high proportion of these young designers find it difficult or impossible to find work in their chosen field. This continues to frustrate designers who cannot understand why their best ideas get blocked (Reiple, 2004).

Young graduate designers who have no credibility in understanding business perpetuate the message that designers must be kept at a distance, used sparingly and only invited to help when it is recognised that artistic input is essential. The entire field of managing creative designers and creative design teams, especially multi-disciplinary teams, holds so much promise for design and marketing research. This problem is often perpetuated in consultancies and agencies where creatives (designers) are kept away from the clients and where communication with the clients is confined to the company seniors, marketing strategists, or ‘suits’ (client liaison teams).
If designers are to be taken seriously they have to embrace marketing thinking from the outset.

In companies rather then consultancies the picture is often better. The emergent Design Management team not only create a bridge with the Marketing Department (and others) but also act as catalysts for all the manifestations of the corporate identity as realised through a rich and varied mix of design disciplines. They identify, brief and pull-together teams of design specialists, adding value in the process. Such specialists might include interior designers, graphic designers, signage specialists, website designers, designers of work-wear and uniforms and others. Whilst marketing are often involved with many or all of these outputs they do not have the training, knowledge or understanding of design to achieve optimum results.

Such understanding of business for designing corporate identity can be acquired through research, from reading strategic documents and business plans to interviewing key stakeholders (Wheeler, 2003)

Emergence of Design Strategists 

Yet many progressive design schools are embracing business and, in particular marketing very successfully. They are principally rooted in design management as a subject discipline but since design management remains ill defined and rarely focuses on the strategic level of business, they usually have titles which do not include the word “management” They reflect a growing view that “together design and innovation are in effect the drivers of any successful business” (Cooper and Press, 2003)

Examples of such design –led courses in the UK are:

•    BA Design Management and Innovation, De Montfort University, Leicester
•    MA / PG Dip Design Entrepreneurship, De Montfort University, Leicester

•    BA Design Management for the Creative Industries, University of Salford
•    MSc / PG Dip Design Management, University of Salford

•    BA Design in Business, Birmingham City University
•    PG Cert / PG Dip / MA Design Management, Birmingham City University

•    MA Design Management, Northumbria University

•    BA (Hons) Design and Technology Management, University of Leeds

•    MA Design: Management and Policy, Lancaster University

•    MA/PG Dip Design Management, London College of Communication

•    MA Creative Enterprise, University College for the Creative Arts
•    MBA Creative Industries Management, University College for the Creative Arts
•    MA Design and Strategy, University College for the Creative Arts
•    MA Innovation & Brand Management, University College for the Creative Arts

In the USA there are excellent strategic design –led courses, and in their report “Lessons from America” the UK Design Council particularly singled out the following courses for their use of design as a problem solving tool in a multi-disciplinary environment:

•    Integrated Product Development Course, Carnegie Mellon University (Vogel, Cagan and Mather, 1997)
•    Dual degree programme (Master of Design: MD and Master of Business Administration: MBA), Illinois Institute of Technology (Alexis and Zia Hassan, 2007)
•    Collaboration between the Massachusetts Institute of Technology: MIT and Rhode Island School of Design: RISD (Eppinger and Kressy, 2002)
•    Stanford University D-School – a collaborative environment for graduates of all disciplines to use design thinking as a problem solving tool.

Design–Led Branding 

So having established there is significant growth in design and branding strategies in education, industry and consultancy, what is different about a strategy developed by designers? The following vignette illustrates the unique value of design into the corporate brand.

Case of BMW Motors:

The brand identity of BMW or Baverische Motoren Werke AG (Bavarian Motor Works) roots are in its origin. The roundel logo, which has not been changed throughout the company’s history, was derived from its predecessor company, Rapp Motorenwerke. The colour and check pattern represents the Arms of Bavaria (see figure 3). Evidently, the design has been used to communicate BMW’s distinctive identity and values (e.g. superior engine technologies) through all touch points. The cross in the centre of the badge is said to represent an aircraft propeller, derived from the early days when the company designed and built aero-engines. One of the best examples of design thinking is the company’s headquarters building in Germany, which represents the inline-4 cylinder engine of a car.

It was the sporty sedan, BMW 700 that defined its identity and personality (see figure 6). Up till now, BMW designs have been followed these character traits (GPI Group, 2007). The focus on
design was emphasised through the so-called “e-code” – a short name for Entwicklng (Evolution and Development in English) which is the main driver behind the E series. Moreover, the attention to design detail is the key differentiator of BMW products.

Figure 5: From left to right: Arms of Bavaria, Spinning Propeller, BMW Roundel and Corporate Headquarters building

Figure 6: The designs of BMW 700 and other consumer touch points

Design and Branding Research at Brunel University

Brunel University have been conducting courses and research in the field of design, innovation and branding strategy since 1993.Consequently there is a growing research output generating new thinking about both the methodologies and models of building design and branding strategies in a wide range of fields. Examples of completed and current research may be found in Appendix B. It may be observed that many of the studies are topical and contemporary and equally likely to be found in a marketing environment in a business school.

A contextual evaluation of this research, using a grounded theory approach, reveals that there is a convergence of design and marketing thinking reflecting a growing understanding of cultural factors and driven by economic imperatives such as increased competition, growing virtual worlds and greater consumer demands. It thus offers the promise of “two tribes at peace” and the convergence may be expressed as shown in table 2 below:

Table 2: Adaptation of Walker “Two tribes at War” 1990

 

Note: Adapted from Walker 1990 and convergence added

 

Opportunity for New Paradigm Based on Convergence of Design/Marketing Thinking 

The convergence of cultures represents an opportunity for marketing and design to build collaborative models for the development of products, services and brands.

Selecting from the above table the education of marketers emphasising words and designers emphasising visuals, the real vision for powerfully communicated corporate brands lies in the integration and potential creative synergy. Both marketers and designers are converging in their agreement on the value of systems and holistic thinking, and investing much intellectual effort into defining problems and generating creative alternatives.
Strategic designers are no longer strange lonely artists detached from the world around them, but “people people” confident in their roles in multi-disciplinary teams. An example of research demonstrating such benefits may be found in Ivins and Holland (1999).

Three views of the current relations between marketing and design are offered below:

Figure 7: Evolution of Design and Marketing Relationship

Possibility of integration

The convergence is demonstrated to be a natural phenomenon [ Figure 7 [3] ] but there are important questions about how to proceed. Fundamental questions about such issues as cultures and semantics need attention. And in building the models questions about added value to corporate brands, storytelling, narrative and leadership issues arise.

The complex challenges of designing a corporate identity and building a corporate brand through designing a great customer experience needs high quality thinking of all kinds.

Conclusions

The paper makes a case for integration for successful development of corporate identity and brands and identifies a number of challenging issues to achieve a greater understanding and ultimate convergence of the marketing and design disciplines. Clearly it is important to begin with a thorough investigation of practices and educational provision. This is essential in relation to education since only a relatively small number of progressive design schools are ready to engage
in developing a new paradigm.
An agenda of issues to be addressed to further explore the potential benefits of cooperation needs to be drawn up and the authors offer the following framework for future study.

1.    A comparative study of the practices and benefits of marketing-led and design-led corporate identity and corporate branding.
2.    Investigation into the characteristics and cultures of design and marketing environments
3.    Evaluation of the processes and models used by marketing and design for strategic branding.
4.    A study of the semantics of the two disciplines, focussing on key terminology used by both disciplines.
5.    Evaluation of cross-disciplinary teamwork and development of new models to support creative teams.
6.    Development of more multi-disciplinary courses – particularly at postgraduate level- which integrate design and marketing [and other functional areas] thinking.

 

References

Aldersley-Williams, H (1994) “Corporate Identity” – Lund Humphries

Alexis, J. and Zia Hassan, M. (2007) ‘Launching the Dual Degree: Creating Business-Savvy Designers.’ Design Management Review, 18(3), 49 – 54.

Baker, M. and Hart, S. (2007) Product Strategy and Management. FT Prentice Hall

Balmer J & Gray E [2003] “Corporate Brands: what are they? What of them?” European Journal of Marketing Vol.37No. 7/8.

Best, K (2006) “Design Management. Managing Design Strategy, Process and Implementation – AVA Academia

Brech, E. et all (1953) Principles and Practice of Management. Longman

Press, M. and Cooper, R. (2003) The design experience: The role of design and designers in the twenty-first century. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing.

Cox, G. (2005) Cox Review of Creativity in Business. HK Treasury [Online], www.hm-treasury.gov.uk/independent_reviews/cox_review/coxreview_index.cfm

Crainer S [2000] “The Management Century” – Booz Allen & Hamilton

Design Council UK [2006] Lessons from America, Report of the Design Council/ HEFCE   fact-finding visit to the United States,
http://www.designcouncil.org.uk/en/Design-Council/Files/System-Files/Download/
Dyson J [1997] “Against the Odds” Orion Business Books

Eppinger, S.D. and Kressy, M.S. (2002) ‘Interdisciplinary product development education at MIT and RISD.’ Design Management Review, 13(3), 58 – 61.

GPI Group, (2007) ‘BMW: The Fifth Dimension.’ Grand Prix Supplement Magazine.

Henrion, FHK & Parkin, A  (1967) “Design coordination and corporate image” – Reinhold Publishing

Ivins J & Holland R [1999] Reflections on the operation of large multi-disciplinary projects in engineering,
design and design management published in IEEE Journal– Vol 42 no 4 ISSN 0018 -9359

Kotler P et al [1999] “Principles of Marketing” – Prentice Hall Europe

Kotler P & Rath A [1984] “Design: a powerful but neglected strategic tool” Journal of Business Strategy, Faulkner and Gray Publishers.

Lester, R.K., Piore, M.J. and Malek, K.M. (1998) ‘Interpretative Management: What General Managers Can Learn from Design.’ Harvard Business Review, March-April, 86 – 96.

Linzmayer, O.W. (1999) Apple Confidential: The Real Story of Apple Computer, Inc. San Francisco: No Starch Press.

Nagai K  [2003] “Brand Strategy and Design” – Pie Books Tokyo

Olins W [1978] “The Corporate Personality : an enquiry into the nature of corporate identity”
Design Council, London

Olins W.[2007]  Speech to Design Futures Seminar – Brunel University

Opie, R (2005) “Remember When” – Bounty Books

Pine (II), B.J. and Gilmore, J.H. (1999) The Experience Economy. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.

Pink, D.H. (2005) A Whole New Mind: Moving from the Information Age to the Conceptual Age. New York: Penguin Group.
Powell  S [2007] Organisational Marketing, identity and the creative brand” Journal of Brand MANAGEMENT Vol.15 No.1

Ries, A & L (2003) “The 22 Immutable Laws of Branding” – Profile Books

Reiple A [2004] “Understanding why your new design ideas get blocked” Design Management Review, Design Management Institute Boston USA Vol 15

Rich, H. (2004) ‘Proving the Practical power of Design.’ Design Management Review, 15 (4) 29 – 34

Topalian,  A & BA plc [1996] “The People Concept – taking the Masterbrand of British Airways below-the- line” –
Alto Design Management

Topalian A & BA plc [1999] “Rebranding British Airways for the 21st  century” – Alto Design Management

Vogel, C.M., Cagan, J. and Mather, J. (1997) ‘Teaching Integrated Product Development: Education Innovation at Carnegie Mellon University.’  Design Management Journal, Fall, 58 – 65.

Von Stamm, B (2003) “Managing Innovation, Design & Creativity” – Wiley

Walker D [1990] “Two tribes at war?”, in Oakley M [ed.] Design Management: A Handbook of Issues and Methods, Oxford: Blackwell

Wheeler A [2003] “Designing Brand Identity” – Wiley

Appendix A

Books frequently used for marketing education which have little or no reference to strategic design

Books included on business schools reading list which explain strategic design

Appendix B

Some examples of strategic design –led branding research at Brunel University

Masters by design research:

•    Designing a culture for innovation [internal branding].
•    Corporate branding alliances.
•    Creativity and company success.
•    Managing brand loyalty in the luxury goods industry
•    Corporate social responsibility and brands
•    A systematic and conceptual framework for brand risk analysis.
•    Mass- customisation and branding for the fashion industry.
•    Futures forecasting tools for design and branding.
•    Design and branding strategy for the toy industry.
•    City [and tourism] design and branding.
•    Brand verbal identity : the impact of taglines on consumers.
•    Total sensory branding – including design of spiritual customer experiences.
•    New design and branding models for many industries eg furniture, fashion accessories, cars, music, hotels, IT and electronic products
•    Spiritual Branding Strategy

PhD completed studies which have implications for strategic marketing

•    Cross Functional Collaboration for Development of Electronic Products
•    Futures Forecasting for new Product Concepts
•    Mass Customisation for Fashion
•    Design Development of Smart Clothing
•    International Design Protection of Intellectual Property Rights

PhD studies in continuation

•    City Branding through Mega Sporting Events
•    Relationship of Design and Brand Attributes for Luxury Cars
•    Branding Development for Teenage Fashion

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